Loss of Control

LOCWGLoss of control was included in the NTSB’s 2016 “Most Wanted List” of advocacy priorities. FAA explains loss of control as an unintended departure of an aircraft from controlled flight.

The GAJSC conducted a detailed review of 180 fatal general aviation accidents that occurred between 2001 and 2010 and were identified as “loss of control,” according to CICTT taxonomy.

The work was performed by two work groups: Loss of Control Work Group 1 (LOCWG1), focused on fatal general aviation accidents that occurred during approach or landing, and Loss of Control Work Group 2 (LOCWG2), which conducted analysis of fatal general aviation accidents that occurred during other phases of flight.

LOCWG1, tasked with analyzing accidents that occurred during the approach and landing phases of flight, was comprised of three sub teams, based on accident selection subsets of experimental amateur-built, certified piston engine airplanes, and turbine engine powered airplanes. NTSB data from sixty randomly selected accidents were given to each sub group; the first thirty well-documented accidents from each were analyzed in detail. Based on the analyses, the group developed Safety Enhancements.

LOCWG1In 2012, LOCWG1 issued its report to the GAJSC for review and approval. The Safety Enhancements recommended in this report are listed below, with links to relevant output resources.

LOCWG2 focused on analyzing accidents that occurred during the departure and en route phases of flight. NTSB data from 120 sixty randomly selected LOC accidents was given to LOCWG2 for analysis; the first ninety well-documented accidents were analyzed in detail for the development of  Safety Enhancements.

In 2014, LOCWG2 issued its report to the GAJSC for LOCWG1review and approval, combined with recommendations from LOCWG1. The new Safety Enhancements recommended in this report are listed below, with links to relevant output resources.

A list of combined recommendations from LOCWG1 and LOCWG 2 follow.



01 Angle of Attack (AoA) Systems – New and Current Production: Public education campaign on the safety benefits of AOA systems supplementing existing stall warning systems.

Press Release: Safe Flight Instrument Corporation selected by Textron Aviation to Provide Stall Warning/Angle of Attack Systems for the Cessna SkyCourier (October 2019)

Press Release: Tecnam has selected Safe Flight Instrument Corporation’s Stall Warning System for its P2012 (October 2019)

02 Angle of Attack (AoA) Systems – Existing Fleet: Public education campaign on the safety benefits of AOA systems supplementing existing stall warning systems.

SE Topic of the Month July 2013

FAA Issues Streamlined AoA Installation Policy and Non-Required Equipment AoA Policy

FAA Safety Brief: Review of AoA Policy May (June 2014)

FAA TV Angle of Attack Awareness Video

FAA Safety Brief: A Long Term Plan of Attack May (June 2016)

Aviation International News: Cessna Skyhawks Flying with Safety Flight AOA Indicator (January 2017)

FAA Paper: Initial AOA Research Results (September 2017)

FAA Magazine: Pushing the Envelope, A Plan of “Attack” for Loss of Control: May 2018

FAA 57 Seconds for Safety: Angle of Attack Awareness (April 15, 2021)

03 Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM): Public education campaign raising awareness of the need for ADM, with an emphasis on preflight planning. The FAA and industry will promote the use of FRATs with associations, type clubs, and operator groups. The FAA and industry will review and improve scenario-based training and educational materials promoting ADM.

SE Topic of the Month: August 2013

SE Topic of the Month: December 2013

SE Topic of the Month: August 2015

SE Topic of the Month: Introduction to Safety Risk Management (January 2019)

57 Seconds for Safety: Risk-Based Aeronautical Decision Making (January 2021)

AOPA Air Safety Institute’s ADM Safety Spotlight

04 Over Reliance on Automation: Awareness campaign to reduce LOC accidents resulting from over-reliance on automated flight

2013 FAA SAFO Manual Flight Operations

2017 FAA SAFO Manual Flight Operations

FAA AC 61-98D, Currency Requirements and Guidance for Flight Review and Instrument Proficiency Check (Updated April 30, 2018)

05 Transition Training: Development of Web-based tools that will aid in all aspects of transition to unfamiliar aircraft across GA, to include Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM), to identify the risk of inadequate training when operating unfamiliar equipment. Public education campaign on the importance of transition training.

SE Topic of the Month: March 2014

GAMA Publication: Transition Training Master Syllabus

AOPA Air Safety Institute Online Course: Transition to Other Airplanes (Updated June 2021)

AC 90-109A, Transition to Unfamiliar Aircraft

SE Topic of the Month: June 2015

NTSB Safety Alert 040 – Understanding Flight Experience December 2015

SE Topic of the Month: July 2016

AOPA Safety Spotlight: Transition Training | Direct Access to Course (Requires Account)

57 Seconds to Safer Flying: Transition Training (June 2018)

SE Topic of the Month: Transition Training (June 2018)

06 Transition Training LODA for EAB: The FAA will amend current policies to more easily allow letters of deviation authority (LODA) from 14 C.F.R. § 91.319(a) through (h) for transition training in experimental aircraft.

Pending FAA Rulemaking (January 2022)

07 Utilization of Type Clubs: Type clubs and operator groups will review the airplane’s existing procedures, if any, and develop simplified procedures and checklists for missed approach, go-around, and other critical phases of flight to reduce the likelihood of fatal loss-of-control accidents caused by high pilot workload.

Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA): Pilot Proficiency Center

08 Flight Training after Period of Inactivity: Awareness campaign to reduce LOC accidents resulting from returning to flying after periods of flight inactivity.

AOPA Program Getting Back into Flying

AOPA Rusty Pilots Program Overview

AOPA Air Safety Institute Online Course: Rusty Pilots

Placing focus on returning to flight after period of inactivity has become a specific focus area during the 2020-2021 pandemic, especially as pilots are returning to flight. The following list provides resources for the pilot community about returning to flight after a period of inactivity as featured in the January/February 2021 FAA Safety magazine:

I’ve Got the Flight Controls… Or Do You? A Game Plan for Getting Back in the Sky (Dec. 28, 2020)

On Recovering from Rustiness – Making Resilient Resolutions for Restoring Proficiency (Dec. 28, 2020)

Non-Towered airport operations has received attention during the pandemic. The following CASE/FAASTeam 2-part series course archived for on-demand reviewing:

NTSB Accident Records Indicate The Need For Plots To Become More Familiar With Non-Towered Airport Operations (Feb. 23 and March 23, 2021)

09 Part 135 Safety Culture: Public education campaign on the safety benefits of standard operating procedures (SOP) for 14 C.F.R. Part 91 positioning legs, flight risk assessment tools (FRAT), and Safety Management Systems (SMS).
10 Stabilized Approach and Landing: FAA and industry to promote and emphasize the use of the stabilized approach and landing concepts through training and guidance material changes. FAA and industry will also review the adequacy of the existing guidance and advisory material on go-arounds.

Mitigating the Risk of Runway Overrun Upon Landing AC 91-79A Chg_2 (Feb. 2018)

SE Topic of the Month: June 2013

FAA Safety Briefing: Stupid Runway! Techniques to Avoid Joining the Crash Landing Club (Mar. 2016)

SE Topic of the Month: Stabilized Approach (Nov. 2016)

ERAU Flight Department Online Video :

Normal Approaches Stabilized Approach

Go Around (Introduction)

Go Around (Rejected Landing)

SE of the Month: Is your approach stabilized? If not, GO AROUND! (Sep. 2018)

SE of the Month: Stabilized Approach (You Tube Video) (Sep. 2018)

NTSB Safety Alert: Stabilized Approaches Lead to Safety Landings (Apr. 2019)

12 Weather Technology – Weather Cameras: Deploy cost-effective technologies that can provide real-time weather information (including actual conditions as viewed through a remote camera) at remote airports.

Aviation Cameras: Updated FAA Website (June 2021)

Aviation Cameras NAV Canada

Washington State Aviation Weather Cameras

Idaho Aviation Association Web Cameras

SE Topic of the Month: February 2017

NTSB Safety Recommendation A-13-025 through -027: A National National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Safety Recommendation, A-13-025 through -027, dated August 15, 2013 states the need for weather cameras in Hawaii.

R1 Expanded Weather Camera Network: In order to reduce the risk of accidents due to weather related factors, pilots should rely upon accurate real time weather reporting.

The CFIT working group supports SE-12 (Weather Technology-Weather Cameras) as developed by LOC-I working groups 1 and 2 to further expand the network of weather cameras across the U.S. and to ensure greater awareness and accessibility of this safety-enhancing technology by pilots and operators.

Integration of Colorado Department of Transportation Cameras: August 2020

13 Weather Technology – Use of Available Weather Information: The FAA and industry will educate the GA community on and promote the use of available weather information technologies, such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aviation Digital Data Service (ADDS) icing tool.

SE Topic of the Month: November 2013

SE Topic of the Month: August 2019

57 Second for Safety: Use of Weather Information (Sept. 2020)

SE Topic of the Month: September 2020

AOPA Air Safety Institute Online Course: IFR Insight Cockpit Weather (June 2021)

14 Engine Monitoring Technology: The FAA and industry will develop a public education campaign based on the current available  technological capabilities on the use of engine monitoring, engine analysis, and fuel-monitoring/indicator systems. The FAA and industry will review the adequacy of the existing engine monitoring, engine
analysis, fuel management, and fuel indicator systems technologies. The FAA and industry will emphasize proper use of fuel management software, if equipped, on every flight.

SE Topic of the Month: October 2013

15 Flight After Use of Medication with Sedating Effects: A public education/outreach campaign to promote the understanding of the effects of medications and the need to use current FAA recommendations and guidance on the use of flying while under the influence of medications to ensure that medications do not decrease a pilot’s alertness and increase the risk of subtle or serious impairment of the airman’s flight capabilities. The FAA, Jeppesen, and other flight-training instruction content organizations will include medication awareness training for all pilots in their basic and advanced training curriculums.

They will incorporate the “I’M SAFE” personal checklist from the AIM into the training curriculum, as well as all preflight risk assessment tools for use before each flight. Encourage medical organizations to provide guidance to aeromedical- and nonaeromedical-trained physicians to emphasize the importance of learning if patients are pilots and to recognize the importance of educating pilot patients about the possible hazards to flight associated with medications prescribed to or used by them. The AAM will evaluate the feasibility of the development, deployment, and upkeep of an online “medication wait time tool” that an airman or health-care provider can use to help determine when a pilot could safely operate an aircraft after the last dose of a medication.

Joint FAA-Industry Letter about Sedating Effects on Medications

SE Topic of the Month: September 2013

NTSB Safety Study: Drug Use Trends in Aviation: Assessing the Risk of Pilot Impairment

SE Topic of the Month: July 2017

SE Topic of the Month: 57 Seconds to Safer Flying: Pilots and Medications (July 2017)

Inside the NTSB Investigative Process – Addressing Medical Issues: August 2017

AOPA: Medical Self-Assessment Course (BasicMed) (June 2021)

FAA Magazine: Condition Inspection – Allergies and Allergy Medications: May 2018

FAA Aeromedical Advisory: Marijuana and Derivatives – What are the Aeromedical Implications?

Avoiding Adverse Drug Interactions in 57 Seconds (November 2021)

AOPA: CBD Can be Risky for Pilots; It’s in More Products than You Think (January 2022)

16 Flight with Impairing or Incapacitating Medical Conditions – Improve Medical Records: The GA Joint Steering Committee (GAJSC) recommends the FAA Medical Certification Division improve electronic medical records to assist the applicant in accurately reporting previously reported historical medical events/records so AMEs have a complete and accurate history when providing medical examinations.

FAA MedXPress 

17 Flight with Impairing or Incapacitating Medical Conditions – Barriers to Communication: AOPA/Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) will work with pilot community to determine additional methods to overcome barriers to open and honest communication of potentially hazardous medical issues and improve pilot professionalism and the ability to conduct accurate medical self-assessment before each flight

FAA Do Not Issue – Do Not Fly List

21 Risk Based Flight Review: The FAA will compile and disseminate risk-based concerns to flight instructors and flight schools to highlight regional and national risks in training and flight reviews. National risk-based concerns identified by the GAJSC in studies for that year should also be shared.

FAA Conducting an Effective Flight Review (2006)

FAA Draft AC 61-98D, Currency Requirements & Guidance for Flight Review and IPC (Posted for Comment November 13, 2017)

FAA 57 Seconds Getting Back in the Plane (September 2017)

22 Flight Data Monitoring: Increase GA participation in the FDM program by creating a public education campaign on the
safety benefits of FDM programs; assessing the GA community’s current sentiment, perception of, and understanding of FDM before and after the public education campaign; determining the incentives, if any, required to generate a meaningful level of GA participation in a national FDM program; and creating a non-punitive policy to promote the use of voluntary GA FDM programs similar to that used with FOQA. Hold an Aviation Safety InfoShare (InfoShare)-like conference to communicate best practices and encourage other fleet operators and individual owners/operators to participate in a national FDM program.

SE Topic of the Month January 2014

Federal Register Notice: “Phoenix Arizona” FDM pilot project

AeroSafety World: Datasharing: October 2015 (4166 downloads)

[Download not found]

Mitre Project Story: General Aviation Pilots Get Their GAARD Up with New App: August 2015 (4468 downloads)

FAA Safety Magazine: Data-Driven Decision Making (Sept.-Oct. 2020)

23 E-AB/Flight Test: The FAA and industry will develop a public education campaign based on best practices to guide E–AB aircraft builders on when to reenter a structured flight test phase following a modification to an aircraft. The FAA and industry will review and revise as necessary the adequacy of the existing guidance and advisory material on the issue of CG limits, including lateral, for amateur-built
experimental aircraft.

FAA AC 90-116, Additional Pilot Program for Phase I Flight Test (September 23, 2014)

SE Topic of the Month November 2014

FAA AC 90-89, Amateur-Built Aircraft and Ultralight Flight Testing Handbook (April 27, 2015)

24 Single-Pilot CRM: Best practices regarding single-pilot CRM will be identified. The identified best practices should be communicated to the GA community through a public education campaign.

SE Topic of the Month February 2014

SE Topic of the Month January 2017

NBAA Single Pilot Safety Standdowns 2020 Update

25 Reduce Regulatory Roadblocks (R3) – Streamline Novel TechnologyThe FAA will institute streamlined processes in its Office of Aviation Safety (AVS) for certifying and installing novel technology that has a high probability of safety benefits with an accompanying low safety risk.

PS-ACE-23-08 (draft) Replacement of Vacuum Driven Attitude Indicators in 14 CFR Part 23/CAR 3 Airplanes

FAA online list of non-required safety enhancing equipment (NORSEE) approvals

FAA Approval of Non-Required Safety Enhancing Equipment (NORSEE) Policy Statement PS-AIR-21.8-1602 (March 2016)

SE Topic of the Month: Reduce Regulatory Roadblock (June 2019)

FAA Memorandum AIR600-20-690-GM03 Cancelling AC 20-32B, Carbon Monoxide (CO) Contamination in Aircraft – Detection and Prevention, March 9, 2020 (Superseded by PS-AIR-21.8-1602)

SE Topic of the Month: Reduce Regulatory Roadblock (June 2021)

26 Reduce Regulatory Roadblocks (R3) – Part 23 ARC: The 14 CFR Part 23 Reorganization Aviation Rulemaking Committee (ARC) will develop the top-level industry standard, as well as a lower tier standard for the existing fleet of small airplanes. The objective of this part 23 tier is to provide standards appropriate for alterations and modifications of older part 23, Civil Air Regulations (CAR) 3, CAR 4a, and Aeronautics
Bulletin No. 7 airplanes. The criteria should include standards for safety-enhancing, nonrequired equipment as well as for general alterations. The burden of proof for low-risk safety-enhancing modifications would be that the equipment does not interfere with existing certified hardware. By providing current standards, FAA approval of safety-enhancing updates should be more efficient and less costly.

FAA Accepts Part 23 ARC Recommendation Report

President Barack Obama Signs Small Airplane Revitalization Act Into Law

Part 23 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

FAA video highlighting the benefits of the proposed revisions to Part 23.

Notice of Public Meeting: Revision of Part 23 Airworthiness Standards for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter Category Airplanes 81 Fed. Reg. 20264 (Apr. 7, 2016)

Press Release: FAA Publishes Final Rule on Small Airplane Safety Certification Standards

Notice of Availability: Accepted Means of Compliance to Part 23 General Aviation Airworthiness Requirements (85 FR 59400; September 22, 2020)

27 Reduce Regulatory Roadblocks (R3) – Review of 14 CFR 21.8 and 21.9: Review 14 CFR §§ 21.8 and 21.9, and ensure these rules are not unintentionally producing roadblocks to the installation of non-required, safety-enhancing equipment. If these rules are creating an unintended roadblock, create paths that are more cost effective, up to and including using the exemption process.

Part 21 ARC Recommendations

Part 21, Amendment 100 (December 30, 2016) revising paragraphs 21.9 (a) * * * (a)(5), (a)(6) and adding (a)(7).


28 Pilot Response to Unexpected Events: This Safety Enhancement will be used to educate flight instructors and pilots on the need for preparing for unexpected events in the cockpit, focusing on: the importance of briefing for emergencies; positive transfer of controls; recognition and management of “startle response”.

This work will also better prepare pilots for engine failure after takeoff. Work will include developing best practices, refining the takeoff pre-brief to emphasize what action will be taken dependent on current situation (altitude, airspeed, terrain, etc.) and recommend training/practicing the developed best practices on a regular basis.

FAA Safety Handout: [Download not found]

SE Topic of the Month June 2017

AOPA Safety Spotlight: Emergency Procedures

AOPA Safety Spotlight: Reality Check – The Runway Behind You (YouTube)

EAA (sponsored): Inflight Metrics Takeoff Advisor

FAA 57 Seconds for Safety (January 2022): The Startle Response

AOPA Article (June 1, 2022): Startle Response – When pilots respond inappropriately to unexpected situations, FAA calls this the “startle response.”

30 Medication List for Pilots: To reduce the risk of pilot impairment or incapacitation from medications resulting in loss of control accidents, the FAA should implement programs to reduce the likelihood of the use, while flying, of prescription and over-the-counter medications that adversely affect the pilot’s ability to safely operate aircraft. Tools to improve pilot knowledge about the safe use of many medications are available to airmen from private advocacy groups such as Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA), but the use of these tools is available only to members and not the entire GA community. As the regulatory agency, the FAA should strive, to the fullest extent possible, to improve pilot knowledge and prevent the use of any medications that could adversely affect flight safety. To this end, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in conjunction with industry groups, academia, and the medical community should develop a medication list of approved or acceptable medications along with disqualifying medications that is easily available to all pilots and available online. The online tool should provide accurate aerospace medical guidance about the most common acceptable and unacceptable medications with recommended return to duty times following the use of these medications and provide information about drug interactions. The underlying conditions which the medication treats should be highlighted.

Guide for Aviation Medical Examiners: Do Not Issue – Do Not Fly List

SE Topic of the Months: Pilots and Medications (Oct. 2019)

FAA 57 Seconds for Safety (YouTube): Pilot and Medications

NTSB Safety Research Report 2020/01: 2013-2017 Update to Drug Use Trends in Aviation

FAA Safety Briefing (Jan/Feb 2022): Aerospace Medicine and You: Mind Your Meds!

31 Test Pilot Utilization and Experimental Amateur Built (EAB) Proficiency: The goal of this Safety Enhancement, once fully implemented, is to improve amateur built flight testing safety through greater understanding of test pilot qualifications and listing of test pilots willing to work with homebuilders.
32 Airman Certification Standards:  An integrated Airman Certification Standards (ACS) document that aligns the aeronautical knowledge testing standards required by 14 CFR Part 61 with the flight proficiency standards (“Areas of Operation”) set out in 14 CFR Part 61 and the existing Practical Test Standards (PTS). Once this Safety Enhancement is fully implemented, the goal of introducing risk management into airman testing and training will be realized.

 Airman Testing Standards and Training Aviation Rulemaking Committee Report

ARAC – Airman Testing Standards and Training Working Group Report

Establishment of ATST Working Group

Airman Certification Standards Published:

Private: June 2016 (Amd. June 2018)

Instrument: June 2016 (Amd. June 2018)

Commercial: June 2017 (Amd. June 2018)

You can verify the latest version of the ACS document by certificate or rating on the FAA’s Airman Certification Standards website.

33 Safety CultureThe FAA and industry will study what constitutes an effective safety culture and try to identify how to reach pilots who do not have/participate in an effective safety culture.

FAA Safety Briefing: Safety Culture (July/August 2019)

34 Safety Outreach

SE Topic of the Month: Mountain Flying (April 2015)

SE Topic of the Month: Vmc Training in ME Airplanes (November 2015)

SE Topic of the Month: Fly the Aircraft First (July 2019)

SE Topic of the Month: Mountain Flying (February 2019)

SE Topic of the Month: Pilot Proficiency (March 2019)