The GAJSC conducted a detailed review of 180 fatal general aviation accidents that occurred between 2001 and 2010 and were identified as “loss of control,” according to CICTT taxonomy.
The work was performed by two work groups: Loss of Control Work Group 1 (LOCWG1), focused on fatal general aviation accidents that occurred during approach or landing, and Loss of Control Work Group 2 (LOCWG2), which conducted analysis of fatal general aviation accidents that occurred during other phases of flight.
LOCWG1, tasked with analyzing accidents that occurred during the approach and landing phases of flight, was comprised of three sub teams, based on accident selection subsets of experimental amateur-built, certified piston engine airplanes, and turbine engine powered airplanes. NTSB data from sixty randomly selected accidents were given to each sub group; the first thirty well-documented accidents from each were analyzed in detail. Based on the analyses, the group developed Safety Enhancements.
In 2012, LOCWG1 issued its report to the GAJSC for review and approval. The Safety Enhancements recommended in this report are listed below, with links to relevant output resources.
LOCWG2 focused on analyzing accidents that occurred during the departure and en route phases of flight. NTSB data from 120 sixty randomly selected LOC accidents was given to LOCWG2 for analysis; the first ninety well-documented accidents were analyzed in detail for the development of Safety Enhancements.
In 2014, LOCWG2 issued its report to the GAJSC for review and approval, combined with recommendations from LOCWG1. The new Safety Enhancements recommended in this report are listed below, with links to relevant output resources.
A list of combined recommendations from LOCWG1 and LOCWG 2 follow.
|01||Angle of Attack (AoA) Systems – New and Current Production: Public education campaign on the safety benefits of AOA systems supplementing existing
stall warning systems.
|02||Angle of Attack (AoA) Systems – Existing Fleet: Public education campaign on the safety benefits of AOA systems supplementing existing stall warning systems.
SE Topic of the Month July 2013
|03||Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM): Public education campaign raising awareness of the need for ADM, with an emphasis on preflight planning. The FAA and industry will promote the use of FRATs with associations, type clubs, and operator groups. The FAA and industry will review and improve scenario-based training and educational materials promoting ADM.
SE Topic of the Month August 2013
SE Topic of the Month December 2013
|04||Over Reliance on Automation: Awareness campaign to reduce LOC accidents resulting from over-reliance on automated flight
|05||Transition Training: Development of Web-based tools that will aid in all aspects of transition to unfamiliar aircraft across GA, to include Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM), to identify the risk of inadequate training when operating unfamiliar equipment. Public education campaign on the importance of transition training.
SE Topic of the Month March 2014
GAMA Publication: Transition Training Master Syllabus
|06||Transition Training LODA for EAB: The FAA will amend current policies to more easily allow letters of deviation authority (LODA) from 14 C.F.R. § 91.319(a) through (h) for transition training in experimental aircraft.|
|07||Utilization of Type Clubs: Type clubs and operator groups will review the airplane’s existing procedures, if any, and develop simplified procedures and checklists for missed approach, go-around, and other critical phases of flight to reduce the likelihood of fatal loss-of-control accidents caused by high pilot workload.|
|08||Flight Training after Period of Inactivity: Awareness campaign to reduce LOC accidents resulting from returning to flying after periods of flight inactivity.
AOPA Program “Getting Back into Flying”
|09||Part 135 Safety Culture: Public education campaign on the safety benefits of standard operating procedures (SOP) for 14 C.F.R. Part 91 positioning legs, flight risk assessment tools (FRAT), and Safety Management Systems (SMS).|
|10||Stabilized Approach and Landing: FAA and industry to promote and emphasize the use of the stabilized approach and landing concepts through training and guidance material changes. FAA and industry will also review the adequacy of the existing guidance and advisory material on go-arounds.
SE of the Month: June 2013
FAA Safety Briefing: Stabilized Approach (Nov. 2016)
|12||Weather Technology – Weather Cameras: Deploy cost-effective technologies that can provide real-time weather information (including actual conditions as viewed through a remote camera) at remote airports.
Aviation Cameras FAA Website
|13||Weather Technology – Use of Available Weather Information: The FAA and industry will educate the GA community on and promote the use of available weather information technologies, such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aviation Digital Data Service (ADDS) icing tool.
SE Topic of the Month November 2013
|14||Engine Monitoring Technology: The FAA and industry will develop a public education campaign based on the current available technological capabilities on the use of engine monitoring, engine analysis, and fuel-monitoring/indicator systems. The FAA and industry will review the adequacy of the existing engine monitoring, engine
analysis, fuel management, and fuel indicator systems technologies. The FAA and industry will emphasize proper use of fuel management software, if equipped, on every flight.
SE Topic of the Month October 2013
|15||Flight After Use of Medication with Sedating Effects: A public education/outreach campaign to promote the understanding of the effects of medications and the need to use current FAA recommendations and guidance on the use of flying while under the influence of medications to ensure that medications do not decrease a pilot’s alertness and increase the risk of subtle or serious impairment of the airman’s flight capabilities. The FAA, Jeppesen, and other flight-training instruction content organizations will include medication awareness training for all pilots in their basic and advanced training curriculums. They will incorporate the “I’M SAFE” personal checklist from the AIM into the training curriculum, as well as all preflight risk assessment tools for use before each flight. Encourage medical organizations to provide guidance to aeromedical- and
nonaeromedical-trained physicians to emphasize the importance of learning if patients are pilots and to recognize the importance of educating pilot patients about the possible hazards to flight associated with medications prescribed to or used by them. The AAM will evaluate the feasibility of the development, deployment, and upkeep of an online “medication wait time tool” that an airman or health-care provider can use to help determine when a pilot could safely operate an aircraft after the last dose of a medication.
Joint FAA-Industry Letter about Sedating Effects on Medications
SE Topic of the Month September 2013
NTSB Safety Study: Drug Use Trends in Aviation: Assessing the Risk of Pilot Impairment
|16||Flight with Impairing or Incapacitating Medical Conditions – Improve Medical Records: The GA Joint Steering Committee (GAJSC) recommends the FAA Medical Certification Division improve electronic medical records to assist the applicant in accurately reporting previously reported historical medical events/records so AMEs have a complete and accurate history when providing medical examinations.|
|17||Flight with Impairing or Incapacitating Medical Conditions – Barriers to Communication: AOPA/Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) will work with pilot community to determine additional methods to overcome barriers to open and honest communication of potentially hazardous medical issues and improve pilot professionalism and the ability to conduct accurate medical self-assessment before each flight|
|21||Risk Based Flight Review: The FAA will compile and disseminate risk-based concerns to flight instructors and flight schools to highlight regional and national risks in training and flight reviews. National risk-based concerns identified by the GAJSC in studies for that year should also be shared.|
|22||Flight Data Monitoring: Increase GA participation in the FDM program by creating a public education campaign on the
safety benefits of FDM programs; assessing the GA community’s current sentiment, perception of, and understanding of FDM before and after the public education campaign; determining the incentives, if any, required to generate a meaningful level of GA participation in a national FDM program; and creating a non-punitive policy to promote the use of voluntary GA FDM programs similar to that used with FOQA. Hold an Aviation Safety InfoShare (InfoShare)-like conference to communicate best practices and encourage other fleet operators and individual owners/operators to participate in a national FDM program.
|23||E-AB/Flight Test: The FAA and industry will develop a public education campaign based on best practices to guide E–AB aircraft builders on when to reenter a structured flight test phase following a modification to an aircraft. The FAA and industry will review and revise as necessary the adequacy of the existing guidance and advisory material on the issue of CG limits, including lateral, for amateur-built
|24||Single-Pilot CRM: Best practices regarding single-pilot CRM will be identified. The identified best practices should be communicated to the GA community through a public education campaign.
SE Topic of the Month February 2014
|25||Reduce Regulatory Roadblocks (R3) – Streamline Novel Technology: The FAA will institute streamlined processes in its Office of Aviation Safety (AVS) for certifying and installing novel technology that has a high probability of safety benefits with an accompanying low safety risk.
FAA online list of non-required safety enhancing equipment (NORSEE) approvals
|26||Reduce Regulatory Roadblocks (R3) – Part 23 ARC: The 14 CFR Part 23 Reorganization Aviation Rulemaking Committee (ARC) will develop the top-level industry standard, as well as a lower tier standard for the existing fleet of small airplanes. The objective of this part 23 tier is to provide standards appropriate for alterations and modifications of older part 23, Civil Air Regulations (CAR) 3, CAR 4a, and Aeronautics
Bulletin No. 7 airplanes. The criteria should include standards for safety-enhancing, nonrequired equipment as well as for general alterations. The burden of proof for low-risk safety-enhancing modifications would be that the equipment does not interfere with existing certified hardware. By providing current standards, FAA approval of safety-enhancing updates should be more efficient and less costly.
Part 23 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
FAA video highlighting the benefits of the proposed revisions to Part 23.
Notice of Public Meeting: Revision of Part 23 Airworthiness Standards for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter Category Airplanes 81 Fed. Reg. 20264 (Apr. 7, 2016).
|27||Reduce Regulatory Roadblocks (R3) – Review of 14 CFR 21.8 and 21.9: Review 14 CFR §§ 21.8 and 21.9, and ensure these rules are not unintentionally producing roadblocks to the installation of non-required, safety-enhancing equipment. If these rules are creating an unintended roadblock, create paths that are more cost effective, up to and including using the exemption process.|
|28||Pilot Response to Unexpected Events: This Safety Enhancement will be used to educate flight instructors and pilots on the need for preparing for unexpected events in the cockpit, focusing on: the importance of briefing for emergencies; positive transfer of controls; recognition and management of “startle response”. This work will also better prepare pilots for engine failure after takeoff. Work will include developing best practices, refining the takeoff pre-brief to emphasize what action will be taken dependent on current situation (altitude, airspeed, terrain, etc.) and recommend training/practicing the developed best practices on a regular basis.
FAASafety Handout: SE-28-Handout.pdf (193 downloads)
|30||Medication List for Pilots: To reduce the risk of pilot impairment or incapacitation from medications resulting in loss of control accidents, the FAA should implement programs to reduce the likelihood of the use, while flying, of prescription and over-the-counter medications that adversely affect the pilot’s ability to safely operate aircraft. Tools to improve pilot knowledge about the safe use of many medications are available to airmen from private advocacy groups such as Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA), but the use of these tools is available only to members and not the entire GA community. As the regulatory agency, the FAA should strive, to the fullest extent possible, to improve pilot knowledge and prevent the use of any medications that could adversely affect flight safety. To this end, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in conjunction with industry groups, academia, and the medical community should develop a medication list of approved or acceptable medications along with disqualifying medications that is easily available to all pilots and available online. The online tool should provide accurate aerospace medical guidance about the most common acceptable and unacceptable medications with recommended return to duty times following the use of these medications and provide information about drug interactions. The underlying conditions which the medication treats should be highlighted.
Guide for Aviation Medical Examiners: Do Not Issue – Do Not Fly List
|31||Test Pilot Utilization and Experimental Amateur Built (EAB) Proficiency: The goal of this Safety Enhancement, once fully implemented, is to improve amateur built flight testing safety through greater understanding of test pilot qualifications and listing of test pilots willing to work with homebuilders.|
|32||Airman Certification Standards: An integrated Airman Certification Standards (ACS) document that aligns the aeronautical knowledge testing standards required by 14 CFR Part 61 with the flight proficiency standards (“Areas of Operation”) set out in 14 CFR Part 61 and the existing Practical Test Standards (PTS). Once this Safety Enhancement is fully implemented, the goal of introducing risk management into airman testing and training will be realized.|
|33||Safety Culture: The FAA and industry will study what constitutes an effective safety culture and try to identify how to reach pilots who do not have/participate in an effective safety culture.|